A overview paper by scientists on the University of Oxford mentioned potential advantages of utilizing humanoid musculoskeletal robots and comfortable robotic methods as bioreactor platforms in producing clinically helpful tendon constructs.
The brand new overview paper, revealed on Sept. 15, 2022 within the journal Cyborg and Bionic Methods, summarizes current trends in tendon tissue engineering and discusses how standard bioreactors are unable to offer physiologically related mechanical stimulation on condition that they largely depend on uniaxial tensile phases. The paper then highlights musculoskeletal humanoid robots and comfortable robotic methods as platforms for offering physiologically related mechanical stimulation that might overcome this translational hole.
Tendon and comfortable tissue accidents are a rising social and financial downside, with the tendon restore market in the USA being estimated at $ 1.5 billion USD. Tendon restore surgical procedures have excessive charges of revision, with upwards of 40% of rotator cuff repairs failing post-operatively. Manufacturing of engineered tendon grafts for scientific use is a possible answer for this problem. Standard tendon bioreactors primarily present uniaxial tensile stimulation. The dearth of methods which recapitulate in vivo tendon loading is a serious translational hole.
“The human body provides tendons with three-dimensional mechanical stress in the form of tension, compression, torsion, and shear. Current research suggests that healthy native tendon tissue requires multiple types and directions of stress. Advanced robotic systems such as musculoskeletal humanoids and soft robotics promising platforms that may be able to mimic in vivo tendon loading,” defined creator Iain Sander, a researcher on the University of Oxford with the Mushy Tissue Engineering Research Group.
Musculoskeletal humanoid robots had been initially designed for purposes comparable to crash check dummies, prostheses, and athletic enhancement. They try to imitate human anatomy by having comparable physique proportions, skeletal construction, muscle association, and joint construction. Musculoskeletal humanoids comparable to Roboy and Kenshiro use tendon-driven methods with myorobotic actuators that mimic human neuromuscular tissue.
Myorobotic models encompass a brushless dc motor which generates stress like human muscle tissue, attachment cables which act because the tendon unit, and a motor driver board with a spring encoder, which act because the neurologic system by sensing variables together with stress, compression, muscle size, and temperature.
Proposed benefits of musculoskeletal humanoids embrace the power to offer multiaxial loading, potential for loading in consideration of human motion patterns, and provision of loading magnitudes akin to in vivo forces. One current research has demonstrated the feasibility of rising human tissue on a musculoskeletal humanoid robotic for tendon engineering.
Biohybrid comfortable robotics is targeted on growing biomimetic, compliant robotic methods which enable adaptive, versatile interactions with unpredictable environments. These robotic methods are actuated by way of various modalities, together with temperature, pneumatic and hydraulic stress, and lightweight.
They’re made of soppy supplies together with hydrogels, rubber, and even human musculoskeletal tissue. These methods are already getting used to offer mechanical stimulation to clean muscle tissue constructs and have been applied in vivo in a porcine mannequin.
These methods are enticing for tendon tissue engineering on condition that: i) their versatile, compliant properties enable them wrap round anatomic constructions, mimicking the configuration of native tendon ii) they’re able to offering multiaxial actuation and iii) various the methods utilized in comfortable robotics overlap with present tendon tissue engineering practices.
Trying ahead, the crew envision superior robotic methods as platforms which can present physiologically related mechanical stimulus to tendon grafts previous to clinical use. There are a selection of challenges to contemplate as superior robotic methods are applied. Firstly, it is going to be necessary for future experiments to match applied sciences proposed on this overview to standard bioreactors.
With improvement of methods able to offering multiaxial loading, it is going to be necessary to search out strategies for quantifying pressure in 3D. Lastly, superior robotic methods will must be extra inexpensive and accessible for widespread implementation.
“An increasing number of research groups are showing that it is feasible to use advanced robotics in combination with living cells and tissues for tissue engineering and bioactuation applications. We are now at an exciting stage where we can explore the different possibilities of incorporating these technologies in tendon tissue engineering and examine whether they can really help improve the quality of engineered tendon grafts,” stated Pierre-Alexis Mouthuy, the overview article’s senior creator.
In the long run, these applied sciences have potential to enhance high quality of life for people, by lowering ache and danger of tendon restore failure, for healthcare methods, by decreasing the variety of revision surgical procedures, and for the economic system, by enhancing office productiveness and reducing healthcare prices.
Iain L. Sander et al, Superior Robotics to Handle the Translational Hole in Tendon Engineering, Cyborg and Bionic Methods (2022). DOI: 10.34133/2022/9842169
Beijing Institute of Expertise Press Co., Ltd
Superior robotics to handle the translational hole in tendon engineering: Evaluation paper (2022, September 23)
retrieved 23 September 2022
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