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Part 2 by NP Chandrasekharan, Father of Hickey Indian Journalism Part 2

There’s a scene in ‘Minnal Murali’. Jason pulls over the bus that fell into the cocaine. Rescues the woman who fell from the bus. Then, on the bus, he writes in chalk: ‘Minnal Murali (Authentic)’. Earlier, after the primary heroic deed, Jason had written “Lightning Strikes” within the appropriate place.

Defendant Shibu additionally dedicated atrocities and wrote ‘Minnalmurali’ on the spot. After the second heroic deed, Jayson writes that there are two lightning rods within the nation and that the true lightning rods are those that do the correct factor.

The hero of Minnal Murali confronted a confrontation that’s usually seen in historical past. Defendant applies a minimum of two of the techniques used within the marketing campaign, using and substituting glittering generalizations. The primary is to grab and use symbols or values ​​which are universally accepted. The second is to accumulate some great benefits of the opponent and to attribute one’s personal disadvantages to the opponent. Shibu was utilizing each techniques collectively when he set fireplace to Dasan’s store and wrote ‘Lightning strikes’ on the wall. With that, Jason bought into hassle. Financial institution theft, slave homicide and shoplifting have been on his head. To fight it, he wrote that the invoice that saved him from hazard was Minnalmurali (Authentic). The phrase can be used within the historical past of ‘unique’ Indian journalism!

The Bengal Gazette is India’s first newspaper. The total identify is Hickies Bengal Gazette. It is usually generally known as The Calcutta General Advocate. The newspaper was printed below the title ‘Hickey’s Bengal Gazette or the Calcutta General Advocate’. With the blessings of the East India Firm, one other newspaper was launched in opposition to the newspaper þ India Gazette. Then the Bengal Gazette modified its identify and confronted it. The Bengal Gazette was later renamed the Hickies Bengal Gazette, or The Authentic Calcutta General Adviser.

The Bengal Gazette is the primary newspaper not solely in India but additionally in Asia. Out of Calcutta in 1780. (Calcutta’s was previously generally known as Calcutta in 2001. It was renamed the Capital of Bengal after abandoning the Anglican identify and adopting the Bengali accent.) Calcutta was the capital of British India on the time of the publication of the Bengal Gazette. (Calcutta held that place for 200 years from the late seventeenth century to the early twentieth century.)
The Bengal Gazette was an English language newspaper. Strictly talking, a weekly newspaper was printed on Saturdays. Two pages 12 inches lengthy and eight inches large. Value Rs. The then price of newspapers in England. It’s estimated that greater than 400 copies have been bought.

The Bengal Gazette was printed 12 years after the exile of William Bolt, the primary newspaper in India. The newspaper was owned by James Augustus Hickey.

James Augustus Hickey

He was the printer and editor of the newspaper. At first of the paper, Hickey described himself as a ‘former printer of a good firm’. The corporate meant the East India Firm itself. The Bengal Gazette was the declared impartial newspaper. The motto of the newspaper speaks for itself:
‘A political commerce weekly newspaper open to all events, unaffected by anybody’.

The slogan was printed on the entrance web page of the newspaper, slightly below the title. The newspaper went forward with justice in line with that pledge.
However by then, rivals had began IndiaGazette. Marion Hastings, the spouse of then-Governor General Warren Hastings, and mediator Simon D’Cruz demanded bribes from Hickey. Hickey didn’t give it up. It was then that Dcruz took the initiative and began IndiaGazette. The bribery story was printed within the Bengal Gazette. Later, the corporate got here out in opposition to Hickey’s newspaper. The corporate’s Supreme Council determined to dam the newspaper from being mailed. The Gazette of India was printed on November 18, 1780, the identical day as the choice, and Hickey added the phrase “original” to his paper.

Hickey’s response was that Hastings’ determination was a problem to free expression. Hickey accused Hastings of every thing from corruption to abuse of energy. Calcutta Supreme Court docket Chief Justice Elijah Impe and Protestant Mission chief John Zacharias Kiermander have been focused by Hickey’s newspaper. Hastings and Kiermander filed a defamation swimsuit in opposition to Hickey. The Supreme Court docket discovered Hickey responsible. He was imprisoned.

Whereas in jail, Hickey printed the newspaper. Studies of corruption continued to plague the newspaper. Hastings filed one other lawsuit in opposition to him. The press lastly closed on March 30, 1872. The newspaper stopped. The press and printing press have been put up for public sale the next week. It was auctioned off and the true India Gazetteers! A painful view of historical past.

The British claimed that Hickey was a sniper. In addition they alleged that he didn’t need to be referred to as a journalist. Authorities didn’t consider Hickey was a journalist. The corporate claims that Sir Philip Francis, Hostings’ fiercest rival, is the creator of the paper. Nevertheless, in parallel with the British marketing campaign, many writers have praised Hickey as the daddy of Indian journalism. Hickey’s wrestle is talked about in memoirs written by William Hickey’s lawyer. (Advocate Hickey, the lawyer, isn’t a relative of Hickey.

William Hickey’s household identify is Osarasalya.) Nevertheless, the total assortment of Hickey’s newspapers is nowhere to be discovered. It is simply that just a few copies are left in a number of locations. Not a single picture of him was discovered.
Consequently, till lately, Hickey was a reference in historical past books from verse to verse. Typically a query in a quiz, or a PSC examination. Nevertheless, in 2018 a ebook was printed that did a whole lot of analysis on hiccups. Hickies Bengal Gazette: The Untold Story of India’s First Newspaper. It was written by Andrew Otis. On this ebook, Hickey rises to prominence as a historian who first revolted in opposition to the East India Firm.

Hickey was Irish. Born 1740. Arrived in London at a younger age. He turned an assistant to William Fayden, a Scottish printer. He later stop his job and have become a clerk for an English lawyer named William Davy. Later he realized to be a surgeon. In 1772 he joined the East India Firm. Arrived in India as an assistant to a surgeon. He later turned a surgeon. And traded. In 1776 the commerce broke out. His ship returned to Calcutta port with the broken cargo. He was imprisoned for not having the ability to repay the debt. Whereas in jail, he purchased a press and began printing. The paper was printed on January 29, 1780. He ran the newspaper till 1782.

Many options of Hickey’s newspaper are famous. The paper coated the writings of poor British troopers and Indian troopers, whom the English referred to as sepoys. The newspaper printed out all of the inconveniences that they had suffered from non-payment. That is why Hickey’s newspaper was so in style in Calcutta. The newspaper was additionally observed in England.

The paper requested the corporate to take a position extra in infrastructure improvement. He demanded that extra consideration be given to street building and sanitation. The paper argued for the rights of the poor and for the precept that taxpayers ought to be represented. Against struggle and colonization. The paper consistently criticized the East India Firm for pursuing occupational pursuits. The corporate determined to not wage struggle. On the time, this was a really giant political place.
Hickey was unwilling to present in or give up when he was attacked and attacked by the corporate. As an alternative, he was able to battle for the precept of press freedom. Earlier than the trial started, Hickey appealed to his readers to get up for press freedom. To battle instantly in opposition to extreme energy. That was Hickey.

The Bengali newspaper, which was later began by Raja Ram Mohan Roy, was referred to as the Bengal Gazette. The primary monument erected for him. It began by telling the story of Minnalmurali. Jason, who was the sufferer of a financial institution theft and homicide, later reveals to BG that he was the lightning rod and that the financial institution theft and homicide have been the work of a faux lightning rod. Then Biji says: ‘It doesn’t matter what anybody does within the identify of lightning, it’ll fall in your head.’ Jason responds: “I want to know who is playing this game.” Thus, Minnalmurali is the unique survival battle in opposition to counterfeiting. The identical is true of Hickey’s limitless story. His story nonetheless struggles with the exceptions unfold by the British.

The phrase that Hickey added to his newspaper when the India Gazette got here out has two unique meanings. This doesn’t imply that the unique Bengal Gazette or the Calcutta General Adviser is his personal. The true journalism is what he does. The true paper is to not reward the rulers, however to face with the individuals. James Augustus Hickey turned the daddy of Indian journalism, not solely as a result of he printed the primary newspaper, but additionally as a result of it marked the start of actual journalism.

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